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The adjustable heat exchanger provides precise control of oven temperature in a pyrolysis reaction. The heat exchanger includes two sets of hollow non-circular discs, the discs of a movable set being interleaved with the discs of a stationary set. A first working fluid circulates through a heat source oven and through the hollow stationary discs, and a second working fluid circulates through the hollow rotating discs and a pyrolysis oven. The two fluids do not mix with one another, but are always completely separate from one another. Heat transfer depends upon the relative surface area of the rotary discs interleaved between the stationary discs. Minimum heat transfer occurs when the rotary discs are rotated to a position clear of the stationary discs, and maximum heat transfer occurs when the rotary discs are completely interleaved with the stationary discs.

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Applications of the patents other than the precise-controlling of heating rates:
1. for quick cooling of fat and fat emulsions .
2. for quick crystallization of sugar from its solution.
since the coolant used may be a cooled water, liquid nitrogen-vapor ‎‎(preferred), liquid helium-vapor or others, the liquid nitrogen-‎vapor coolant allows more efficient task of: 1) cooling the viscous ‎materials such as fat and fat emulsions and 2) crystallization of ‎sugar from its solution”. In addition, the liquid nitrogen is cheaper ‎than the liquid helium although the latest coolant is more efficient ‎in cooling.‎
In this regard, using the N2-‎liquid vapor/ dry air mixture as an alternative coolant for cold ‎water. Cooling with N2-liquid is more efficient than cold water in ‎treating viscous materials, comprising in particular fat and fat ‎emulsions or sugar crystallization from its solutions. The N2-liquid ‎vapor permits relatively sudden cooling that subtracting the cooling ‎duration significantly. In addition, sudden cooling occurred by N2-‎liquid vapor for sugar solutions helps sugar to be crystallized in ‎higher yields. ‎
To achieve these targets, two pathways of cooling were shown in ‎Figure 4. In this figure, cold water or N2-liquid/dry air mixture can ‎be used for the cooling process. Regarding to the cold water, a ‎pressurized pump is used to feed it to the inlet hole of the hollow ‎rotatable shaft and returns it to the same source for re-cooling in a ‎closed system. ‎
For the N2-liquid/dry air mixture coolant, filtering air is essential to ‎remove any solid pollutants as well as dehumidifying since the ‎presence of moisture in the nozzles found in the shaft may freeze ‎when using the N2-liquid blocking them and this will prevent the ‎cooling cycle and increase the internal pressure within the fins. The ‎movement of the coolant mixture is adjusted by using a vacuum ‎pump it the terminal end of the hollow rotatable shaft.‎

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